Tag : #alkahfi

kahfi 9.1


Allah said,

“And We send not the messengers except as bringers of good tidings and warning.” [Quran 18: 56]

Ibn Ashur (d. 1973) explained how this verse goes together with prior verses. After Allah stated that mankind tends to argue and reject the truth and this refusal surely makes the Prophet depressed, Allah consoles His Prophet by reminding him his missions. The Prophet’s mission is only to teach people the truth with glad tidings and warning no more else, so when they deny his teaching it is none of his business. This verse at the same time is the guide line for every Muslims in preaching Islam since both glad tiding and warning must be balance. Maintaining a balance between giving people glad tidings and making them fear Allah’s punishment is one of the most important guidance of our religion until Allah mentioned phrase “bashiran wa nadhiran” four times in Quran and “mubashshirin wa mundhirin” four times too. In fact, research proves that reward and punishment promising are potent modulators of associative learning in instrumental and classical conditioning.

The Prophet indeed used this dual function very well. He gave rewards promising to encourage people doing noble deeds. For instance, our Prophet ordered his Sahabah (Companions),

“Invite people to Islam by giving them tidings and do not create in their minds aversion towards Islam. Show them leniency and do not be hard upon them.” [Bukhari & Muslim].

There are as well verses which fill the believer’s heart with peace and tranquility and so the heart finds glad tidings in them like description of Paradise. We all feel that receiving such glad tidings prompts us to be more diligent in our worship and to be keener on obedience to Allah.

On the other hand, the Prophet was asked by Allah to warn people so they avoid evil acts. Allah said,

“O you who covers himself with a blanket, arise and warn.” [Quran 74: 1-2].

He cautioned us by telling us he has seen in Hellfire when he performed Miraj. He declared several penalties for some major sins. Allah also makes us scare by informed us what has happened to those who disobeyed Allah as Noah’s people, ‘Ad, Thamud, Moses’ Pharaoh. Until one of the great military leaders, like Sun Tzu (d. 470 BC), agreed with this when he said, “Soldiers must be treated in the first instance with humanity, but kept under control by means of iron discipline. This is a certain road to victory.”

However, both these two things must be balance. A great notable scholar, Ahmad ibn Hanbal (d. 855), once said,

“Both hope and fear should be equal. Fear should not be dominant, and hope should not be dominant either. Whenever one of it dominates the other, then the doer will be doomed. Because if the person prioritized hope, then he would fall into the feeling of secure from Allah’s plot, and if he prioritized fear, then he would fall into the feeling of despair of Allah’s mercy.”

Therefore, we see in Quran that verses about glad tidings and warning always come one after another. It is because the most ideal state is that we hope for Allah’s mercy and, at the same time, we fear His punishment. Allah said, “They invoke their Lord with fear and hope.” [Quran 32:16]. He also stated, “Know that Allah is severe in penalty and that Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.” [Quran 5: 98]. In this regard, Ibn Qayyim (d. 1350) also quoted,

“A heart is like a bird which hope and fear are its two wings.”

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Surah Al-Kahf at A Glance


This 110-verse chapter is considered as one of the most popular surahs in Quran. It is due to several hadiths related to some virtues of this Meccan surah. The Prophet said, “Whoever reads surah Al-Kahf on Friday, light shall shine forth for him between the two Fridays.”[narrated by Al-Hakim]. This surah which is named after its first story, Seven Sleepers of the Cave, contains a lot of interesting points of inspiration such as splitting Mushaf to two halfs since it is located exactly in the middle. Therefore people around the world recite this surah weekly. Especially, scholars and students find a number of its eye-catching aspects in it.

This surah was revealed responding questions which Madinian Jewish rabbis suggested to Quraish, “Ask him about three things which if he answers them then he is a Prophet. If he does not, then he is a liar. Ask him first about some young men in ancient times, about a man who travelled to the east and the west of the earth and about the Ruh (soul).” They immediately challenged the Prophet with these questions. He admitted that he hadn’t the answer but he said that he would have the answers in the morning. Unfortunately he didn’t say “Inshaallah (iif God wills it)”. Doubt in Muhammad began to grow amongst the people of Mecca since the Prophet still had no answer in the next morning because the revelation hadn’t come down. Eventually, after 15 days, he received this surah as an answer to the questions.

Additionally, the most memorable contents of this surah is its great stories. Since the Prophet stated, “Who amongst you would survive to see Dajjal should recite over him the opening verses of surah Al-Kahf.” [recorded by Muslim] and Dajjal is the most dangerous fitnah (trial), then there is no oddity when we find stories about trials in this surah. The story of Seven Sleepers speaks about trial of dictator leader and trial of young ages. The story of two people of gardens speaks about trial of arrogance and wealth. The story of Adam and Devil speaks about trial of Devil. The story of Moses, Joshua and Khadhir speaks about trial of knowledge. The story of Dhulqarnain speaks about trial of power.

Last but not least, this surah provides solutions of those difficult trials inside all of these stories and in other verses like strengthening connection with Quran in His words: “And recite what has been revealed to you of the Book of your Lord.” [Quran 18:27] and to be sincere and pious in His verse: “Whoever would hope for the meeting with his Lord – let him do righteous work and not associate in the worship of his Lord anyone.” [Quran 18;110]. Because of this importance, inshaallah we will study one or two amazing verses of this surah every Friday.

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People of the Cave and Their Silver Coins


In January 250, an Emperor of Roman, named Decius (d. 251), issued one of the most remarkable imperial edicts which written there: “All the inhabitants of the empire were required to sacrifice before the magistrates of their community ‘for the safety of the empire’.” One day he came to Ephesus and built in the middle of this city altars for idols. He also issued an order to his people of the city to sacrifice to idols, and then he anointed their bodies with the blood of these offerings. Anyone who refused to obey this command, risked torture and execution. A number of prominent followers of Prophet Isa, in fact, refused to make this ritual slaughter and were unjustly killed in the process, including their scholars.

Maximilian, Jamblichus, Martin, John, Dionysius, Antonius, and Constantine were seven youngsters from elite families who still persisted in their faith and fled into a cave. After a while, they fell asleep overthere for 300 years in Solar Calendar and 309 years in Lunar Calendar. As time passes, times have changed from several generations and did the empire so.

When they finally woke up, they didn’t realize how long they have slept. They thought that they must have slept for a day or half a day only. And they soon feel hungry and began asking one of them for going to the city in order to buy food.

One of them said, “So send one of you with this silver coin of yours to the city and let him look to which is the best of food and bring you provision from it and let him be cautious. And let no one be aware of you. Indeed, if they come to know of you, they will stone you or return you to their religion. And never would you succeed then.” [Q. 18:19-20]

Jamblichus was selected to carry out the task, so he went to the city with the silver coins that they had brought with them to the cave earlier. Once he arrived the city, Jamblichus noticed that the city is not longer the city he remembered. People now worship Allah. He got curious, but still very careful as to not raise any suspicious, because if the Emperor found out about them, they will be killed for sure. But when he wanted to buy food, the shop owner was surprised to see old silver coins handed to him. Roman emperors always put their pictures in their official silver coins. The picture appeared in Jamblichus’ coins was the picture of Decius who had died since exactly three centuries.

His coins later were considered as valuable treasures and then he was accused to be a spy due to his long hair and nails and because of his old and strange style. He was then brought in front of the emperor to be tried. Jamblichus was surprised again to see that the emperor is no longer the emperor he knew who wanted to kill them before. This new emperor was Justinian I (d. 565) who reigned since 527, a just person and one who follows the teachings of Prophet Isa, just like him even not as pure as Jamblichus’ faith. So, he told the new king of what has happened to them and why they went to hide in the cave. Upon hearing this, the king and his men went with Jamblichus to the cave. But not long after arriving at the cave and Jamblichus met his brothers, those People of the Cave (Ashabul Kahfi) drew their last breath and died.

written by Nur Fajri Romadhon

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Equality in Islam


Allah said, “And keep yourself patient by being with those who call upon their Lord in the morning and the evening, seeking His countenance. And let not your eyes pass beyond them, desiring adornments of the worldly life, and do not obey one whose heart We have made heedless of Our remembrance and who follows his desire and whose affair is ever in neglect.” [Quran 18:28]


According to a tradition mentioned by Ibn Kathir (d. 1373), the elites of the Quraish said to Prophet Muhammad, may peace and salutation be upon him, that they considered it below their dignity to sit with such indigent people as Bilal, Suhaib, ‘Ammar, Khabbab, Ibn-Mas`ud and the like who generally remained in his company. They said only if he should send them away, they would be willing to attend his meetings in order to learn Islam.

At this, Allah revealed this verse admonishing the Prophet: “Do you desire to discard these sincere but poor people so that the chiefs of the Quraish, the well-to-do people, should come and sit near you?” At the same time, this is also a rebuke to those chiefs of Quraish: “Your wealth which you are so proud of has no value at all in the sight of Allah and His Messenger. Those poor people are really more worthy in their sight, for they are sincere and always remember Allah.”

Islam declares a complete equality among all mankind, regardless of one’s faith, skin color, language, social status, wealth or ethnic background. The whole universe belongs to Allah and all the people are his creatures. Everyone is born equal and will die equal. He will judge every person on the basis of merits and deeds.

Prophet Muhammad stated in his farewell sermon, “O people. Your Lord is one and your father is one (Adam). Arabs have no superiority over non-Arabs, nor non-Arabs has any superiority over Arabs. Also white has no superiority over black nor does black have any superiority over white, except by piety and righteousness. All humans are from Adam and Adam is from dust.”

Look at our Prophet who practically dignified the second class people among Quraish. For example, after the demise of his mom at the age of 6, his father’s Ethiopian slave, Ummu Ayman, took care of him. Until he became a Prophet he still respected her like his own mother and he considered her as a family member. He also adopted a slave boy, Zayd, and raised him like his own son. After his wife Khadijah passed away, he married to a black woman, Sauda. When Muslims conquered Mecca, the Prophet had Bilal climbed on top of the Kaaba to proclaim Azan, the call for the prayer. It was done to show the people the prestige of the black people in Islam.

After several weeks at the annual pilgrimage, we will see Muslims from all over the globe gather in Mecca. They speak different languages but perform all rituals together without any difference. In masjids near our houses we notice this fact too, when rich and poor, white and black, educated and layman all stand together worship their One God. All of this equality atmosphere in Islam was introduced in the ages when people looked down at other people just because their social status or their lineage, centuries ago before the Revolution of France or the Declaration of Human Rights. In Islam anyone who does righteous deeds with full conviction and piety, becomes beloved to Allah.

Allah speaks the truth when He said, “O mankind, We have created you from one male and female and made you into nations and the tribes that you may know one another. Surely the most honorable among you with Allah is the one who is the most righteous. Verily Allah is all-knowing all aware.” [Quran 49:13]

written by Nur Fajri Romadhon


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kahf 4.1

Having Non-Muslim Friends

kahf 4.1

Allah said:
His shahib (companion/friend) said to him while he was conversing with him, “Have you disbelieved in Him (Allah) who created you from dust and then from a sperm-drop and then proportioned you as a man? [Quran 18:37]


Al-Baydhawi (d. 1286) mentioned in his tafsir that here Jamblichus (Tamlicha), a muslim, was talking and discussing several issues with Peter, who was a disbeliever in this case.

Peter was a filthy rich man. He had two wide gardens. Each of the two gardens produced its fruits all season and there was a big river between them.

He also showed off with his wealth and sometimes he said arrogantly to Jamblichus, “I am greater than you in wealth and mightier in numbers of men (descendants & workers).”

He once said as well, “I do not think that my assets will perish ever. And I do not think the Hour (the Doomsday) will occur. And even if I should be brought back to my Lord, I will surely find better than this as a return.”

However, Allah called Peter as a “shahib” (companion/friend) for Jamblichus. Just like Allah named Abu Bakr as a “shahib” for our beloved Prophet in At-Tawbah verse 40.

It means that there is no restriction to have non-muslim friends as long as they don’t insult you because of your religion.

The Egyptian Darul Ifta’ stated in their fatwa:

“Basically, the relation between muslim and non-muslims is the coexistence not the clash nor the enmity. This includes all types of humanity relationship such helping each others. In fact, the forbidden wala’ (loyality) which Allah has prohibited us from is the religious loyality upon non-muslims. The noble intercourse, aids and pious attitudes are things that Allah commanded us to do.

Allah said: ‘And speak to people good words.’ [Quran 2:83]. He also declared: ‘Allah does not forbid you from those who do not fight you because of religion and do not expel you from your homes – from being righteous toward them and acting justly toward them. Indeed, Allah loves those who act justly.

Allah only forbids you from those who fight you because of religion and expel you from your homes and aid in your expulsion – forbids that you make allies of them. And whoever makes allies of them, then it is those who are the wrongdoers.’ [Quran 60: 8-9].”

Similarly, Saudi Lajnah Daimah also answered in one of their fatwas, as follows:

kahf 4.2

Q: “Is it permissible to make friend with a Christian guy? He goes along with him, visits him, studies together with him etc.”

kahf 4.3

A: “It is allowed to perform gracious deeds towards a non-harbi disbeliever (a non-muslim who does not insult muslims for their religion) and to reply his good deeds or presents with the similar ones. But it is unlawful in Islam to give him wala’ (religious love/loyality).”

To put it in a nutshell, there is no ban on having non-muslim friends as long as they do not attack muslims by words or deeds due to their religion. Instead, muslims could show them beauty of Islam by their acts & words during this connection. Allah always knows best.

kahf 4.4

written by Nur Fajri Romadhon

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kahf 51

 Saying “If Allah wills”


 Allah says;
“And never say of anything, “Indeed, I will do that tomorrow,” “except by adding, “If Allah wills.” [Quran 18: 23-24]


Quraysh wanted to challenge Prophet Muhammad because they wanted to ridicule him and show that he wasn’t a authentic prophet. They met Jews in Madina and those Jews passed onto Quraysh three questios so they could examine Prophet Muhammad’s truth. Those questions were about the People of the Cave, the Spirit and Dhulqarnayn. Jews informed Quraysh that no one know the aswers except the real prophet.

The Prophet was clueless having no answer in regards to their questions, so he told them he would answer their question tomorrow wishing that Allah would hint him the answers by sending him the revelation through the angel Gabriel. Nevertheless, the Prophet forgot to say ‘if Allah wills’ and suddenly the revelation was delayed for a total of fifteen days. This made the Prophet worry.

At this point, Quraysh began to vastly criticize the Prophet by blaming him and putting him down. They said loudly that he wasn’t a Prophet. However, the revelation eventually came and the questions asked by the Quraysh were answered. This is also the main evidence that Quran is only Allah’s revelation not Muhammad’s writing. If so, our Prophet would not wait for days to answer their questions.

On the other hand, note that Allah rebukes and reminds the Prophet not to do so again. Allah shows His Prophet the correct etiquette when he determines to do something in the future. All plans should always be referred to the will of Allah, the Knower of the everything. Who knows what was and what is yet to be and what is not to be, and how it will be if it is to be. Al-Nawawi (d. 1277) explained, “It is strongly recommended to someone who says ‘I am going to do something’ to say after it ‘In shaa Allah/If Allah wills’.”

Furthermore, saying “In sha Allah” will help our plan go on the right way. Hence, it is forbidden to say this sentence when someone is telling a lie. It cannot be translated as “maybe, maybe not” in practical terms, or most usually, “maybe not”. Instead, “In shaa Allah” is something which must be taken very seriously since it is a kind of dua towards Allah in order to make our plans easier. It is also an expression of humility and acceptance of Allah’s control over all things. We consider it is arrogant of us to surely promise that something will happen when in reality we have no control over what in the future. There are always circumstances beyond our effort that get in the way of our plans. We firmly believe that Allah is the ultimate decider.

For instance, Prophet Solomon (d. c. 931 BC, peace be upon him) once said: “Tonight I will go around to seventy women so that each one of them will give birth to a son who will fight in Jihad for the sake of Allah.” An angel said to him, “Say:`If Allah wills'”, but Prophet Solomon did not say it. He went around to the women but none of them gave birth except for one who gave birth to a half-formed child. Prophet Muhammad commented after telling this story, “By the One in Whose hand is my soul, had he said, “If Allah wills,” he would not have broken his oath, and that would have helped him to attain what he wanted, and they would all have fought as horsemen in the cause of Allah.” [reported by Al-Bukhari & Muslim]

written by Nur Fajri Romadhon

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kahfi 7.1

Was Iblis a Fallen Angel?



Allah stated,
“And when We said to the angels, ‘Prostrate to Adam!’ and they prostrated, but Iblis (did not). He was of the jinn so he departed from the command of his Lord. Then will you take him and his descendants as allies other than Me while they are enemies to you? Wretched it is for the wrongdoers as an exchange.”
[Quran 18: 50]


One of interesting issues to talk about, even actually it has no essential effect to our faith, is the question about the origin of Iblis. Was he an angel or a jinn? In some Western literatures, even it is not mentioned literally in Torah, Bible nor Quran, we find the term “fallen angels”, which refers to angels who were expelled from Heaven for showing disobedience and ungratefulness to God. They were originally created to believe in God and serve him, but now they are enemies to both him and humanity. Was Iblis one of those fallen angels?

Honestly, some Islamic scholars believed it. This opinion is actually based on some Israiliyyat (Israelites’ traditions), which mentioned that the name of Iblis was “Azazil” and he used to live on the earth. He was one of the strongest of the angels in terms of knowledge and intelligence. Responding Israiliyyat, Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalani (d. 1449 CE) said that if those known to be true because the revelation to the Prophet Muhammad, we confirm them. And if those not known to be true or false, we may tell them without saying whether they are true or false. But if those known to be false, because the revelation to our Prophet, we must reject them.

Nonetheless we cannot accept this Israiliyyat particularly because in chapter of Al-Kahf verse number 50, Allah clearly stated, “He was a jinn so he departed from the command of his Lord” (kana min al-jinn fa-fasaqa ‘an amri Rabbihi). This is a crystal clear evidence supporting the opinion that Iblis was not an angel. It is just because the conjunction “fa” in the Arabic text is indicative of the reason. Fakhruddin Al-Razi (d. 1210 CE) explained, “The sentence ‘He was of the jinn’ indicates that Iblis’ disobedience to prostrate wasbecause he was a jinn.” On the contrary we saw that angles never disobey Allah’s commands. Allah describes them, “…who disobey not, from executing the Commands they receive from Allah, but do that which they are commanded.” [Quran 66:6].

Simultaneously, there are a number of differences between Iblis and angels. Our Prophet mentioned them as two different creatures when he said, “The angels were created from light, Iblis was created from smokeless fire, and Adam was created from that which has been described to you.” [Muslim]. Angels also do not have any descendants whereas Jinn have. Allah said: “Then will you take him and his descendants as allies other than Me while they are enemies to you?” [Quran 18:50]

Furthermore, those Islamic scholars who held the opinion that Iblis was an angel also misinterpreted the sentence “‘So angels prostrated, except Iblis” which appear seven times in Quran, firstly in chapter of Al-Baqarah verse number 34. They said if Iblis was not an angel, then he must not be blamed when he did not prostrate because Allah only asked angels to prostrated when He said, “When we commanded to angels (wa idh qulnaa lil malaaikah)”. Ibn Kathir (d. 1373 CE) answered this understanding by saying, “When Almighty Allah commanded the angels to prostrate before Adam, Iblis was regarded to be inclusive in that command. Although he was not of their kind, he was like them and he was performing their deeds. Because of that, Iblis was also regarded as the addressee of that command directed to the angels. And he was condemned since he did not obey that command.”

Additionally, Ibn Hajar Al-Haytami (d. 1566 CE) said, “It is obviously clear that the signification of the sentence ‘He was of the jinn’ is stronger than the sentence ‘So all angels prostrated, except Iblis’, because separated exception comes a lot in Quran and hadiths.” Separated exception is one of two kinds of exception in Arabic grammar. It means “but” rather than “except” because the thing excluded and the things not excluded are two different kinds of beings. For example, “Those workers went but their children (did not go).” Allah said, “They have no knowledge of it but following of assumption (they only have).” [Quran 4: 157]. We all know that following the assumption is not a knowledge at all, yet we see here that Allah excludes it from knowledge. Similarly, Allah said, “So all angels prostrated, except Iblis” should be understood like this: “So all angels prostrated, but Iblis (did not prostrate).”

To sum up, we consider a small dispute between Islamic scholars whether Iblis was an angel or not, but the right opinion belongs to those scholars who says that he was not an angel, instead he was a jinn and the ancestor of jinn. Hasan Al-Basri (d. 642 CE) and other tabi’is said, “Iblis was not one of the angels, not even for a second. He was the origin of the Jinn just as Adam was the origin of mankind.”

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kahfi 6.1

This Worldly Life and Water


Allah said,
“And present to them the example of the life of this world, its being like rain which We send down from the sky, and the vegetation of the earth mingles with it and then it becomes dry remnants, scattered by the winds. And Allah is ever, over all things, Perfect in Ability.”
[Quran 18:45]


The word “Dunyaa” in Arabic morphology is derived from the root word “danaa” which literally means to be near or to be low. This word which has passed to several Asian, European and African languages is often used in Quran to call this “worldly life” that opposes to the Hereafter (Aakhirah). It is called “Dunya” because it has much lower class than Aakhirah as it is also considered nearer to us than the Hereafter life.

Allah mentioned over here the parable of this worldly life. How it is like the water which We send down from the sky, and the vegetation of the earth mingles with it. It mingles with the seeds that are in the earth, so they grow and become good, producing bright, fresh flowers, then after that it becomes dry and broken pieces, withered up, which the winds scatter tossing them about right and left. This is the real face of “Dunya” which will eventually cease and come to a halt.

Al-Qurtubi (d. 1273 CE) explained in his Tafsir how compatible this parable is. He said that Allah compared Dunya to water for the following secrets.

Firstly, water does not settle and remain in one place. Equivalently, Dunya does not remain the same upon one state of affairs. Someone may be rich right now, but next month he may lost his wealth, or vice versa.

Secondly, water goes away and does not remain likewise Dunya will eventually come to an end. Some women can be proud of her adorableness when she was young, but three decades later that beauty is absolutely going to fade.

Thirdly, nobody is able to enter water without getting wet. Similarly for Dunya, no one is perfectly safe from its trials and calamities even he tries his best in swimming. We all know what will happen later to those who deeply dive or even sink into Dunya forgetting Aakhirah.

Fourthly, if you have the right amount of water it is a useful nursery, but if it goes beyond the limit it is a harmful destroyer like flood or tsunami. Analogously to Dunya, its subsistence is beneficial while its excess is harmful. Dunya is not forbidden, instead it is important in life. But it will become disaster when somebody takes it more than its proper quantity. Of course, everyone should recognize their own measures. May Allah help us to be proportional in this worldly life and keep it in our hands not inside our hearts.


Written by Nur Fajri Romadhon

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